Symbol C, atomic number 6, the atomic weight 12.01, the external electron shell arrangement 2s22p2, at the second cycle IVA tribe, a few major oxidation +4, +2, 4, (2), covalent radius of 77 picometer, ionic radius (< C4 + / SUP>) 16 picometer, the first ionization energy 1086.1kJ / mol, electric negative 2.5. A carbon-12 and carbon-14 two stable isotopes, carbon-14 is radioactive. Carbon atoms and the number of valence electron valence electron orbit equal to the number of other electronic atoms can be used sp, sp2, and sp3 hybrid orbital formation of four σ keys, small radius of carbon atoms, can form p-p π, carbon can form multiple bonds (double bond or three button), carbon atoms Bond mutual integration are strong, especially carbon compounds more. In nature widely distributed, graphite, coal, oil, natural gas, limestone, animals and plants, which were carbon elements. Carbon crust total quality of 0.032%. With three carbon allotropes : diamond and graphite, and amorphous carbon (such as charcoal, coke, coal coke, graphite-crystal). The physical properties of carbon and chemical activity with its crystal structure closely related. Diamond Crystal for a typical atom, conductivity, hardness greatest density 3.51g/cm3, 3550 ° C melting point, boiling point of 4827 ° C; Graphite is soft, dark gray, density 2.25g/cm k3, melting point 3652 ° C and a good heat transfer and electrical conductivity. Carbon chemical nature and stability, not room temperature with the air of oxygen reaction, do not dissolve in water, dilute alkali and organic solvents. At high temperature, carbon combustion of carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide. Only halogen fluorine reaction with carbon. With sulfur in the next generation high-temperature carbon disulfide. Red heat of the carbon formed by reaction with water vapor gas (CO and H2). With temperatures in many metals can be produced by the reaction of metal carbides. Temperatures are highly reductive, some metal or from the reduced oxidation. Heat may be concentrated sulfuric acid or thermal oxidation of concentrated nitric acid into carbon dioxide. Carbon extensive use of steel and other alloy certain important component part of the metallurgical industry, the chemical industry and important raw materials. In ancient carbon was found. Cracking natural gas (methane is the main component) availability of pure carbon.
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