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Nickel

GB
CAS No. 42004, 7440-02-0
Molecular Formula Ni
molecular 58.70

silver white hard metal; vapor pressure 0.13kPa/1810 ° C 1453 ° C melting point Boiling Point : 2732 ° C; solubility : insoluble in concentrated nitric acid, dissolved in dilute nitric acid; density : relative density (water = 1) 8.90; Stability : stability; nine risk marker (Spontaneous goods); the main purposes : for the tube material, hydrogenation catalyst and nickel salt manufacturers


2. The impact on the environment :
a health hazard


pathways : inhaled, ingested.
health hazards : nickel can cause dermatitis, also known as the nickel "prurigo." Drama itchy skin, after papulosis, herpes and erythema, severe suppuration, fester. Long-term inhalation of nickel powder can be induced respiratory tract irritation, chronic rhinitis, or even perforated septum. Fair causing allergic pneumonia, bronchitis, asthma.


two, toxicology information and environmental behavior


Several nickel metal

Branch no acute toxicity, the general toxicity of nickel salts are lower, but nickel carbonyl able to produce very toxic. Nickel carbonyl vapor to form rapidly absorbed by the respiratory tract, a small amount can be absorbed by the skin, which is operating environment poison entered the body's main channel. The nickel carbonyl concentrations of 3.5 mg/m3 when people would feel like lights, the odor of smoke and low concentration of people feeling unwell. Absorption after nickel carbonyl can cause acute poisoning, about 10 minutes there will be early symptoms, such as : dizziness, headaches, gait instability, and sometimes nausea, vomiting, lightheadedness; Late symptoms in contact with 12 to 36 hours after the recurrence of nausea, vomiting, high fever, difficulty in breathing, chest pain. Exposure to high concentration of acute chemical pneumonia, pulmonary edema ultimately respiratory and circulatory failure and death through lethal dose exposure, the accident occurred after 4-11 died. The nickel-specific symptoms of poisoning dermatitis, respiratory impairment and respiratory cancer.


Mutagenicity : neoplastic transformation : hamster embryo 5 µ mol / L, respectively.
reproductive toxicity : rat poisoning by mouth lowest dose (TDL0) : 158mg/kg (multi-generation drug), the embryo poisoning, and fetal death.
cancer : IARC carcinogens comments : animal to be positive.


migration and transformation : natural water often halide nickel, nitrate, sulfate and some inorganic and organic complexes in the form of dissolved in water. Water soluble ions combine with the water to form hydrated ions [Ni (H2O) 6] 2 +, and the amino acid, cystine, fulvic acid formed soluble organic complexes, they can move with the flow. Nickel in water movement, the main form of precipitation and precipitation and crystal shape sediment migration to the substrate, this migration of nickel with a total volume of migration of 80%; Dissolved solids and patterns of migration patterns adsorption only 5%. To this end, the water most of the nickel substrate concentration in the sediment, sediment nickel content of up to 18 ~ 47ppm for water nickel content of 38,000 to 92,000 times. Soil nickel comes mainly from the weathering of rocks, atmospheric dust and irrigation water (including nickel-containing wastewater), farm fertilizer, plant and animal decomposed remains of other. Plant growth and farmland drainage can be removed from the soil nickel. Usually, with the sewage irrigated into the soil nickel ions were trained soil inorganic and organic complexes by adsorption, accumulate mainly in the surface.


hazardous characteristics : its powder higher chemical activity, exposure to air oxidation reactions occur, or even spontaneous combustion. Encountered strong acid reaction and emit hydrogen. Combustible dust, and air can form explosive mixtures.


3. Emergency Monitoring Methods :
dipstick; Speed test tube; Spectrophotometric "sudden environmental pollution monitoring and emergency treatment and disposal technologies," 10,000 too editor
portable colorimeter ( Water) (Italy Hana products)


4. Laboratory monitoring methods :
monitoring methods source categories
AAS GB11912-89 water
diacetyldioxime spectrophotometry GB11910-89 small water
dimethylglyoxime spectrophotometry GB/T15555.10-95 solid waste leachate
FAAS GB/T15555.9-95 solid waste leachate
FAAS GB/T17139-1997 soil leaching liquid waste
FAAS "operating environment for air toxic substances detection methods," Chen editor operating environment air
AAS "Solid Waste Analysis Evaluation Manual," the China Environmental Monitoring terminus translated solid waste


5. Environmental standards :
China (TJ36-79) Workshop harmful substances in the air that the maximum allowable concentration 1mg/m3 (Ni dollars)
the former Soviet Union (1978) Ambient Air maximum allowable concentration 0.001mg/m3 (days average) (aerosol)
Chinese (GB16297-1996) Air Pollutant Discharge Standards ?maximum allowable emission concentrations :
4.3mg/m3 (Table 2); 5. 1mg/m3 (Table 1)
?maximum allowable emission rate : 0.15
2 ~ 6.3kg / h; three .24 ~ 10 kg / h (Table 2) 2
0.18 ~ user / h; 3 ~ 0.28 kg / h (Table 1)
?unorganized emissions monitoring the concentration limits : 0.040mg/m3 (Table 2)
0.050mg/m3 (Table 1)
China (to be issued) source water harmful substances maximum allowable concentration of 0.02 mg / L
China (3097-1997-1997) water quality standards (mg / L) ?Class II Class III ?
0.005 0.010 0.020 0.050
Chinese (GB11607-89) Fisheries water quality standards 0.05mg/L
China (GB8978-1996) sewage discharge standard 1.0mg/L
China (GB4284-84) farm sludge pollution control standards (mg / kg of dry sludge) acidic soils : 100
neutral and alkaline soils : 200
China (GB5058. 3-1996) solid waste leaching toxic identification standard value of 10 mg / L
Chinese (GB15618-1995) soil environmental quality standards (mg / kg) 1 40; two 40 ~ 60; three 200



6. Emergency treatment and disposal methods :
a leakage contingency


isolation leak contaminated areas, restricting access. Cut off the fire source. Recommended emergency personnel wearing self-absorption filter respirators, to wear protective clothing. Do not direct contact with leakage. The use of non-spark tools in a dry, clean, covered containers. Transfer recovery.


approach : When water to be contaminated, which can be joined and lime, nickel to nickel hydroxide precipitate from the water into sludge, sludge do further detoxification treatment. According to reports in pH9.9, joined 250mg / L lime generation nickel hydroxide, can the original nickel-containing 100 mg / L of the wastewater nickel content to 1.5 mg / L, respectively. If lime treatment, coupled with the ferric chloride to regulate nickel hydroxide precipitation by sand filters, will enable the treatment of wastewater containing nickel from the foam / L to 0.009 ~ 1.9mg / L, respectively. For those who are nickel-contaminated soil can be added lime to adjust the pH alkaline soil to reduce training nickel toxicity to plants.


two protective measures


respiratory protection : its possible exposure to dust, they should wear self-absorption filter respirators.
eye protection : Wear protective chemical safety glasses.
physical protection : gas-penetrating protective clothing.
hand protection : Wear gloves against chemicals.
other : work to complete, take a shower. Pay attenti
Notice:Each item can have many explanations from different angels. If you want grasp the item comprehensively,please see below "more details data".

Structure:
Please see below "More Detailed Data"
More Detailed Data:
1) Nickel
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7) Raney nickel
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9) nickel soaps
10) nickel steel
Notice Some description was translated by software and the data is only as a reference.
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